Complete Guide to Understanding  and Treating Acne


The Complete Guide to Understanding  and Treating Acne with Home Remedies and Acne Medications

 What is Acne?

Acne is an inflammatory disorder of the skin. it is a very common condition that affects 9.4% of the worlds population, making it the eighth most prevalent disease in the world.

What Causes Acne

All skin including yours has tiny holes known as pores, these pores each have hair follicles which is connected to sebaceous / oil glands.

When your skin is healthy, the sebaceous glands make sebum that passes through the pore onto the skin surface or epidermis. A type of skin cell known as Keratinocytes, line each of these follicles.  When the body sheds dead skin cells, the keratinocytes rise to the surface of the skin.

On the other Hand, when a person has acne, the hair, sebum/oil, and keratinocytes stick together inside the pore leading to a “blocked pore”.


When this happens, a bump forms on the skin called a “pimple” or “zit”. so, acne is the skin condition that causes pimples. It commonly occurs on the face but can also appear on the back, chest, and shoulders.

factors That may increase your risk for acne:

  • Hormones.
  • Family history.
  • Medications.
  • Age.
  • Hygiene

Things like Diet, Stress, Pressure, Squeezing or picking at blemishes, scrubbing your skin too hard May not cause acne, but can make it worse.

Is Acne life threatening?

In most cases, in most cases acne usually Clears up from around twenty-five to thirty years of age, but some people continue to have this skin condition.

Acne doesn’t affect your overall health, but it can still be painful, especially if you have severe acne. Over time, acne might also cause scarring.


Although acne doesn’t affect your overall health it can still cause emotional distress. Pimples and acne scars on your face and other visible body locations can affect self-esteem and self-confidence.

While acne is a very annoying Keep in mind, too, that it is very treatable. With recent medical discoveries, A number of effective treatments are available, so you have options for stopping the outbreak and minimizing your chances of scarring.

What are the different types of acne?

If you have acne, you may have noticed some of the following:

Whiteheads (closed plugged pores): A whitehead is a type of acne that develops when dead skin cells, oil, and bacteria become trapped within  the pores.


Blackheads (open plugged pores): Blackheads (acne vulgaris) are a type of acne that happen when open bumps on the skin get filled with excess oil and dead skin.

Small red, tender bumps (papules)

Pimples (pustules), which are papules with pus at their tips

Nodules – Large, solid, painful lumps under the skin


(cystic lesions) Painful, pus-filled lumps under the skin


How To Treat Acne?

Chemical Peels


Chemical peels are cosmetic treatments used on the face, hands, and neck. They’re done to improve the appearance or feel of the skin.


During Chemical Peels, chemical solutions are applied to the area being treated, which will cause the skin to exfoliate and eventually peel off.

When this happens, the new replaced skin will be smoother, appears less wrinkled, and usually have less damage.

Types of Chemical Peels

There are three kinds of chemical peels, they are;

  • Light peel,
  • Medium peel
  • Deep peels.

The type of Chemical Peel used is based on the intensity of your acne. For basic skin maintenance, a light peel will do. For smoother and better skin texture, a medium peel will do. When it comes to scars and acne, a deep peel is advised.


Light peel

if you have uneven pigmentation, dryness, acne or fine wrinkling then a light chemical peel might be the right choice for you.

Light peel removes just the outer layer of skin (epidermis) in a light exfoliation and can result in a healthier glow.

Common agents used in light peels may include combinations of alphahydroxy acids and beta hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid and maleic acid.


All of these chemicals are the milder choices than those used for deeper peels. You can repeat these treatments at regular intervals to achieve your desired results.

Light chemical peel steps

  • Your face will be cleansed.
  • The chemical solution is brushed onto your skin and left on for a few minutes. some mild stinging sensations may be observed
  • The chemical peel is then washed off and neutralized.
  • Light peels can be done at home, but for the medium and deep peels, it is safer to book an appointment with your dermatologist to prevent harming your skin.

Medium peel

If you have Acne scars, deeper wrinkles and uneven skin color you may need to be treated with a medium chemical peel.


The chemicals used for medium peels remove skin cells from the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and upper part of your middle layer of skin (dermis).

Agents frequently used for medium chemical peeling include TCA (trichloroacetic acid), Jessner’s solution and glycolic acid.

Medium chemical peel procedure steps

  • Your face will be cleansed.
  • The chemical solution is brushed onto your skin and left for just a few minutes. You may feel some burning or stinging.
  • The treated area may turn a whitish grey color.
  • The chemicals are neutralized with a cool saline compress.

Your skin may turn red or brown in the days just after the peel. The peeling process typically starts within 48 hours and lasts for a week. It is important to keep the skin well moisturized during the peeling process.


Deep peel

If you have deeper facial wrinkles, skin that’s damaged by the sun, scars, areas that appear blotchy or even pre-cancerous growths, deep facial chemical peels might be the right choice for you.

Your physician will use the strongest chemical called phenol to penetrate down to the lower dermal layer of your skin. For this type of peel, you may need a local anesthetic and a sedative to manage any discomfort.

A deep chemical peel usually involves some sort of pretreatment for up to eight weeks. This will prepare your skin for the peel and speed the healing process.



Retinoid-Based Products

What are retinoids?

Acne treatment Retinoids

Retinoids are a derivative vitamin A that Helps to reduce the signs of natural aging, as well as repair sun damage on the skin.

There are many different types of retinoids available ranging from over-the-counter (O.T.C) to prescription Retinoinds in topical and oral medication form.


How do retinoids work?

Retinoids work by neutralizing free radicals in the skin. it helps accelerate skin renewal, enhance collagen production and reduce the appearance of aging, uneven texture and age spots. They can also enhance skin shedding and reduce inflammation.

Types of Retinol

Retinol, retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid are all types of retinoids. The type of retinol product you use will depend on the type of acne you have.

So, make sure you consult your dermatologist to find out which one is best suited for your skin type and skin condition.

Antibiotic Treatment

Acne antibiotics


Antibiotic treatment for Acne is used when your acne is caused by either Microbe – Bacteria or fungi. They work by killing excess skin bacteria and reducing redness and inflammation.

They can be either Topical or Oral forms.

It is more effective to use both a retinoid and an antibiotic for the first few months of treatment.

The antibiotics are usually combined with benzoyl peroxide to reduce the likelihood of developing antibiotic resistance.


Examples include clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide (Benzaclin, Duac, others) and erythromycin with benzoyl peroxide (Benzamycin) and tetracycline. Topical antibiotics alone aren’t recommended.


Home remedies for acne

For acne that is not very severe, you can develop some simple home remedies and routines that can help treat or prevent Acne.

Apple cider vinegar Treatment

  • Mix 1 part apple cider vinegar and 3 parts water (use more water for sensitive skin).
  • After cleansing, gently apply the mixture to the skin using a cotton ball.
  • Let it sit for 5 to 20 seconds, rinse with water and pat dry.
  • Repeat this process 1 to 2 times per day, as needed.

Tea tree oil Treatment

  • Mix 1 part tea tree oil with 9 parts water.
  • Dip a cotton swab into the mixture and apply it to the affected areas.
  • Apply moisturizer if desired.
  • Repeat this process 1 to 2 times per day, as needed.

Taking Supplements

Some supplements like Collagen, Biotin and Keratin can help improve the overall health of your skin and prevent or treat acne as well.



Tips For Preventing acne

If you are prone to having acne you can take certain steps to help lower your chances of getting pimples or increasing acne breakouts. They include:

  • Cleanse your face daily with an oil-free cleanser.
  • Use water-based makeup or products labeled “noncomedogenic” — this means they’re less likely to clog your pores.
  • Avoid skin care and makeup products that contain oil.
  • Always remove makeup and cleanse your skin thoroughly before bed.
  • Shower or wash your face after exercising.
  • Eat a balanced diet, and stay hydrated.

Clean pillow case.

Have a clean pillow case goes a long way in preventing acne spread and recurrence. since acne is caused by oil and bacteria having a dirty pillowcase may increase these factors.


Good Toiletries

The type of soaps, creams and sponges that you use might either increase or reduce your chances of getting acne.

Products that are to harsh for your skin can be very abrasive and cause wear off tour skins natural protection exposing it to bacteria and sun burn.

Always tray to make sure you use products that are good for your skin type.



In Summary

Dealing with Acne can be difficult, but there are now plenty of effective treatments can help ease breakouts and heal your skin.

If you continuously experience painful or persistent breakouts, you should talk with a dermatologist, so they can offer support with creating a treatment plan that works for your skin and reduces scarring.

Finally, always treat acne when you can – especially for teens – don’t leave it to chance as it can lead to scaring.




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Acne – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. Published 2022. Accessed September 16, 2022.


Deep Chemical Peel. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Published 2022. Accessed September 16, 2022.

Is it time to use retinol? How to know if it’s right for your skin care routine. Published 2022. Accessed September 16, 2022.

Topics H. Acne. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Published 2022. Accessed September 16, 2022.

What Causes Acne and How Can I Prevent It?. Healthline. Published 2022. Accessed September 16, 2022.



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